Cancer refers to one of the large diseases which develops the abnormal cells that divide uncontrolled growth and division of cells. some type of cancer causes rapid cell growth. while others cause cells to grow and divide at a slower rate. Cancers often have the ability to spread throughout your body. These abnormal cells are termed cancer cells, Malignant cells or Tumor cells. These cells can infiltrate normal body tissues.
Many cancers tissue is further identified by the name of the tissue that the abnormal cells originated from. for example, Breast cancer, Lung cancer, etc. There are over 200 types of cancer. Cancer is the second highest leading cause of death in the world. But the survival rate is improving, all thanks to cancer screening and cancer treatment.
What are the causes of Cancers?
Anything that may cause a normal body cell to develop abnormally potentially can cause cancer.
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There are many causes of cancer, and some of them are preventable.
- Some risk factors for cancer include: In addition to smoking
- Poor nutrition
- Heavy alcohol consumption
- Excess body weight
- Physical inactivity
According to the USA diagnose 87 percent of cancer cases in people ages 50 years or older.
Three most common types of cancer
- Men: Prostate, lung, and colorectal
- Women: Breast, lung, and colorectal
- Children: Leukemia, brain tumors, and lymphoma
The incidence of cancers and cancer types are influenced by many factors such as age, gender, race, local environmental factors, diet, and genetics. The incidence of cancer and cancer types vary depending on these variable factors.
Is cancer Genetic?
Genetic factors can contribute to the development of cancer. specific cancer has been linked to human genes they are as follows:
- Skin and melanoma
Genes also influence the cells' production of proteins, and proteins carry many of instruction for cellular growth and division. Some genes change proteins that would usually repair damaged cells. This may lead to cancer. if the parents have such genes, they may pass on the altered instructions to their offspring.
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Genes mutation instructs a healthy cell to:
1. Fail to uncontrolled cell growth:
Normal cells know when to stop growing so you have just the right number of each type of cell. Cancer cells lose the controls that tell them when to stop growing. A mutation in a Tumor suppressor the gene which allows cancer cells to continue growing and accumulating.
2. Rapid growth:
A gene mutation can advise a cell to develop and grow more rapidly
3. Make mistakes when repairing DNA errors
DNA repair genes look for errors and do the needed correction. A mutation in a DNA repair gene may mean that other errors aren't corrected, leading cells to become cancerous.
Types of Cancer
The most common type of cancer is Breast Cancer, followed by lung and Prostate Cancers.
- Colon and Rectal
- Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
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Below listed some common/ general signs and symptoms:
- Weight changes, including unintended loss or gain
- Skin color changes, such as yellowing, darkening or redness of the skin, sores that won't heal, or changes to existing moles
- Changes in bowel or bladder habits
- Persistent cough or trouble breathing
- Difficulty swallowing
- Persistent indigestion or discomfort after eating
- Persistent, unexplained muscle or joint pain
- Persistent, unexplained fevers or night sweats
- Unexplained bleeding or bruising